Concept of Collective Security

The term of Collective Security (CS) was coined in 1930s. Before this time, we can see some attempts for ensuring CS during the XIX century, especially Vienne Congress (1815) and forming “Saint Alliance” against common enemies – counter-revolutionary movements and Ottoman Empire. But this CS relied on power and it provided “force balance”. The strengthening of “force balance” caused intensive armament and World War I. The hard results of war accelerated searches of new approaches to maintain international security. The 14 principles of W.Wilson, inclinations of avoiding use of force in conflicts, the Kellogg‐Briand Pact (1928) and the Hoover‐Stimson Doctrine (1932) were the main trends that formed the “concept of CS”. At the beginning, that concept joined in itself the ideal-liberal thought which renounced use of force in the relations among the states, except national defence. That was the main reason of hands-off policy by some states. And it brought very hard results, such as World War II. After the war, CS again was one of the main directions of new world policy. But the new concept of CS varied from the 1930s. The concept of CS during the “cold war” based on power. Bipolarization of the world and establishing two military organizations such as NATO and Warsaw Treaty Organization played a vital role in international security. However, that security was characterized temporary and fragile. During the 1970s neoliberalism began to grow. According to neoliberalist view the concept of CS related to the concept of cooperation among the states. As their precursors, they strongly support the idea of cooperation among the states in economical, political, social and cultural field. But different from liberalists, they do not ignore power totally. Agree with the neoliberalist view, the concept of CS got wider, because of changes in the international environment. These challenges include appearing new international actors, such as international organizations, institutions, NGOs and changing the type and form of conflicts. New conflicts appear within the borders of states, but they able to influence whole region or the world. And there are other non-traditional threats (terrorism, trafficking, international organized crimes, migration). There are also some involuntarily process – global warming, ozone depletion and etc. which directly influence international sphere. Taking into account all of these processes, I think that the modern concept of CS must include following principles:
 CS must cover all states, not state groups.
 CS must rely on principles of International Law.
 CS can be gained after the mutual and cooperative relations of the states – through integration among them; and globalization trends in world policy
 Renouncing use of force. The use of force must ensure universal interest only for maintaining international peace and security. At last, it must be within the frame of international organizations, e.g. the UN, NATO, EU. Nowadays, the meaning of “force” also dilated. It covers not only military actions, but also sanctions (economical, political), collective protest and others.
 The use of mediatory institutions in conflict settlements.


One Comment Add yours

  1. Monex Scam says:

    Great Powers and Outlaw States Unequal Sovereigns in the International Legal Order. GREAT POWERS AND OUTLAW STATES UNEQUAL SOVEREIGNS IN THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL ORDER by Gerry Simpson. At core the idea of the sovereign equality of states posits that the conduct of states towards each other their regulatory competence within their boundaries and their capacities to participate in and generate rules for the international system are entitled to the same level of legal deference without regard to their territorial size population material wealth technology or cultural sophistication.

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